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Stylistic variation is an aspect of a native speaker’s linguistic repertoire that is often elusive to and thus not easily acquired by non-native speakers. Even advanced non-native speakers of a target language may not have acquired complete command of the intricate workings of style which vary according to factors such as interlocutor and situation. In this sense, in an English as a foreign language (EFL) setting, where learners are not exposed to various uses of English other than typical contexts such as a classroom, stylistic variation may be an obstacle in ultimate target language attainment. In such a context, style instruction should perhaps be introduced explicitly and specific contexts should be provided. As an almost universal characteristic of language is differential use according to context, learners of a foreign or second language may be somewhat aware of stylistic variation in their own native language and thus may be vaguely aware of stylistic variation in speech and writing in the target language.
Recently unconventional and technology-driven contexts have emerged (Collot & Belmore, 1996; Herring, 1996; Murray, 2000). Computer and network-based communication have unleashed a new array of styles that have yet to be defined and categorized. These styles have not been fully explored and warrant attention as to their true nature and how they relate to conventional styles. Online chat, a form of synchronous computer-mediated discourse (CMD), is a proliferating and burgeoning means of communication. While it has been noted that online chat exhibits features of speech, the claims of the hybrid nature of online chat are still not definitive. Text-based chat, as opposed to oral chat, presents a challenge in that writing is the means through which oral-like interaction takes place.
It appears that synthesizing research on style and CMD is valid in that there has been little effort to do so in a comprehensive manner. Further justification regarding this need is evidenced in the literature review in the following section. The purpose of the present study is thus, twofold. First, an attempt is made to further elucidate the nature of text-based online chat by comparing it to speech and writing. While previous studies have compared online chat to writing, few published research has examined text-based chat and how it measures up to both speech and writing. Second, the acquisition of stylistic competence and whether it is realized in terms of different contexts (e.g., speech, writing, online chat) by learners of English is examined. Acquisition according to different English learning backgrounds is examined to determine whether instruction or rather non-instruction is necessary of new and emerging styles such as online chat and to ascertain if an EFL context can be limiting in terms of exposure to different contextual styles.
Moreover, recent research in EFL in a Korean setting still tends to focus on pragmatic skills such as the acquisition of speech acts (Jung, 2005; Moon & Ahn, 2005; Suh, 2006 among others) or textbook analysis (Han & Bae, 2005; Jeon, 2005; Nam & Park, 2005 among others). Although various other topics in English learning and teaching in Korea have been investigated, stylistic acquisition has rarely if at all been examined in a Korean EFL setting.
In light of the purpose of the study, the following research questions pertaining to Korean speakers of English in an EFL setting are raised:

Research Question 1:
        What is the true nature of online chat and how does it compare to speech         and writing?

Research Question 2:
        Do Korean learners of English exhibit stylistic variation across         different stylistic modes? If so, does variable competence arise according to
        different English learning backgrounds?

Answers to the aforementioned research questions are expected to assist in providing a somewhat holistic picture of online chat and in particular style acquisition of non-native English speakers with different backgrounds. Further rationale for the present study is given in the following section.

Journal

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