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In the late 1970s and early 1980s, research on writing in English as a second language (ESL) witnessed a paradigm shift from a product-oriented approach to a process-oriented approach (Hairston, 1982). Motivated by dissatisfaction with a form-dominated approach that had failed to foster students' thinking and expression (Silva, 1990) and writing process research on English as the first language (Flower & Hayes, 1980, 1981, 1984), the writing process movement brought the writer and the writing process to the center of attention.
Since then, Flower and Hayes' (1981) theory of cognitive processes involved in writing has greatly influenced ESL writing research by establishing a common ground for writing researchers. Extensive research (Friedlander, 1990; Leki, 1992; Perl, 1979; Raimes, 1985, 1987; Silva, 1993; Zamel, 1983) conducted within the process research paradigm has probed the nature and characteristics of L2 composing processes and factors such as L1 literacy level, L2 language competence, L2 writing skills, and the use of L1 during the composing process that influences the L2 composing process. However, the dominant focus on writers' discovering meaning and finding expressions has evoked criticism from a number of researchers who have observed ESL students' problems and difficulties in school writing, especially at the university and graduate levels (Horowitz, 1986; Reid, 1989). Therefore, the paradigm has evolved to focus on new approaches concerning genre and post-process as alternative solutions to the process approach (Atkinson, 2003; Matsuda, 2003; Ryu, 2003).
In contrast to the dominant research paradigm to writing in ESL context, relatively few studies have been carried out in English as a foreign language (EFL) context. According to Ortega (2004), the research published on L2 writing seems heavily ESL-oriented. Casanave (2003) has also claimed that many non-Western EFL settings have been apparently bypassed by the process-writing revolution. In a similar vein, there have been very few studies conducted in Korea with regard to the composing processes and the effects of proficiency on writers' usage. The present study attempts to begin to fill this gap.

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